Name give the Method:
” Self-understanding in the digital world –
Elderly, learning and ICT in a situated learning perspective”
Presentation/Description of the method:
The following is chapter 4 of a final product/report done by Bodil Skov Jørgensen supervised by Nina Bonderup Dohn Cand.it, webcommunication, Syddansk University, 7. August 2014
“… You cannot design the practices that will arise from institutional systems. One can design roles but not design the identities that will be constructed through these roles. One can design visions but not the fidelity needed to mobilize those visions. One can make offers – affordances – for the opinion debate, but not the meaning itself. One can design work processes, but not work practices; one can design a teaching plan, but not learning” (116)
Thus, Etienne Wenger describes the relationship between design and practice. The purpose of a didactic design is not to organize and lock in the learning that takes place when the course is completed. In other words, I cannot plan or design in advance the change or the meaning that the IT course in this project will have for the elderly who participate. The learning or change cannot be designed. One can only design for it – understood in the way that, within the framework set up, one can either promote or counteract that learning takes place at all. Here, the didactic design must be seen as the framework for a development or change to take place in the individual and not as a predetermined plan that makes it clear what must necessarily happen during the process. The didactic design is not aimed at designing learning, but at designing conditions for learning to be achieved.
The design is based on Hiim and Hippe’s didactic relationship model (117) as seen here:
Hiim and Hippe’s model is not a planning model, but an analysis model. Unlike decided planning models, its purpose is not to control a learning situation in general, but rather to analyze and expand understanding of what is already in place. Nevertheless, I choose to use this model to plan the didactic design, because it leaves room for an analytical view of what already exists and therefore also the opportunity to incorporate these experiences into a future course. The aim of the model is to embrace the complexity of a learning situation by focusing on the social, cultural, psychological and physical learning conditions of the learners, on the cultural, social and physical framework factors and furthermore, on learning objectives, content, learning process and assessment. All these factors are interrelated. In the sense that when changes occur with one of the factors it also affects the remaining factors. If a student’s prerequisites for participating and learning in the course changes, the goals changes and so on. With the model, I can take into account the incomplete and unfinished nature of learning and instead of aiming at specific, set goals, I can aim at creating a framework in which learning can continue to develop – even when our course is completed. Because I do not know the participants in advance, the didactic design cannot, in general, take into account the specific premises. The didactic design is therefore – basically – based on a more general approach to the target group of older people over 65, based on a number of studies in relation to IT teaching and the use of IT in this target group.
4.1 Learning View
The course, which will be described below, is based on social constructivism and the situated learning view. The didactic design is designed on the basis that it should serve as a supportive framework for the learning and development of the participants. It is therefore not possible to design or organize in advance the practice, which is partly made up of the meaningful context of action, the elderly and I become part of. In the same way, it is also not possible to plan in advance exactly what needs to be done along the way for the individual participants. The ongoing development that is taking place along the way allows for a change in the participation of the elderly in various social contexts and individual trajectories. Therefore, to support the situated learning view, the design of the course content is relatively minimalist and is based on the individual’s participatory and life trajectories. Anchored in social constructivism and philosophical hermeneutics, both mine and the participants in the didactic design’s prejudice and understanding have an impact on the way we perceive. The students interpret what they encounter along the way based on their pre-knowledge or from their current experience horizon, which is linked to their anchoring in family, society, state and culture. Along the way, the experience horizon will be expanded, and new knowledge will emerge – both for them and for me. The elderly will, so to speak, be able to meet the world and understand themselves with different eyes than before the course.
4.2 Learning Prerequisites
The learners are all older than 65 years. Their bases are varied but are all within the framework of the National Board of Digitization’s definition of the “IT strangers”. Within this definition, there are four types, each positioned differently in relation to a maze, which in this context is a metaphor for the digital world. The four types have no relation to age, but focus solely on the knowledge of IT.
The first type belongs to the group (118) that has so far never been involved with IT. These IT strangers are completely outside the maze. The second group (119) has just entered the maze. They may have a computer in the home and also know how to turn it on and off, but other than that, their experience is limited. The third group (120) currently has some experience with IT. They can get through the maze, but always use the same route to reach the finish line. The last group (121) has gained so much confidence in IT at this time that it dares to embark on new routes and experiment in relation to reaching through the maze. This group is close to no longer being called “IT strangers”.
The bases of the learners are therefore different. The bases are linked to the feelings, attitudes, skills and understandings of the learners with which each person meets the teaching or learning. (122) The group of older people is less homogeneous and has fewer common traits than children. (123) Some have not attended school since 7th grade, while others have an academic education or work where continuing education has been a part of everyday life. For some, having to learn is associated with negative experiences they have been exposed to in the past, while for others it is associated with both desire and interest to learn something new. (124 125) Some have typed on machine or used IT in the working world and therefore have other preconditions than those who have never worked with technology. The survey from the Danish Technological Institute shows that previous work experience is crucial to whether elderly people start using the Internet. (126)
The motivation of the elderly is also a prerequisite. (127) It is strongly linked to their sense of self-determination and autonomy prior to the IT process.
Ryan and Deci have developed the theory of self-determination. Self-determination is framed by social and environmental factors that facilitate and undermine intrinsic motivation, respectively. (128)
Intrinsic motivation is the motivation that is solely driven by intrinsic, interesting or desire-based factors. It is essential that people not only experience that they acquire new competences or a higher degree of belief in their own ability, but also that they themselves perceive their actions as self-determined, if intrinsic motivation is to be maintained or achieved. (129)
Some studies have shown that perceived competencies alone mediate this effect (130), while others (131) support the hypothesis that an increase in experienced or perceived competences must be accompanied by a sense of self-determination or autonomy if the increased competences are to result in an increased degree or sense of inner motivation. Thus, there is a correlation between the degree of experienced or perceived new competence and the degree of autonomy. (132) Intrinsic motivation is desirable because it promotes people’s opportunities to gain or improve competences, but in many cases it will be virtually impossible for the starting point to be that the desire makes you do the work, when at the same time it is necessary to learn new skills that the surrounding society requires.
Therefore, there will often be extrinsic motivation instead. Motivation driven by demands from outside ourselves or by external goals and not necessarily personal interest. (133) But the degree of requirements can vary, and extrinsic motivation can be divided into several categories from leaning towards de-motivation to approaching intrinsic motivation depending on the integration of values and behavioral regulation. There is a big difference between whether older people want to become digital because they can no longer get their state pension if they cannot use online banking, or because they want to be part of the community or to have contact with their family. Both examples are driven by extrinsic motivation, but to varying degrees. Regardless, it matters whether the elderly want to become digital because they are constantly being met with demands from authorities or family, or whether they can actually see a purpose for the technology in relation to their own needs and interests.
Research shows that the more autonomous extrinsic motivation is, the more people show engagement (134), they perform better (135), they are less likely to drop out (136), their learning is of higher quality, (137) and their psychological well-being is heightened. (138 139) According to Ryan & Deci, the primary reason for people to be motivated by external demands or to fulfill them is that the requirements are of value to others who the person who meets the requirement wants or already feels attached or connected to – be it family, friends or the community.
In order to maintain a sense of intrinsic motivation and self-determination with an understanding of the presence of extrinsic motivation, it is essential that the social, contextual conditions support a person’s sense of both competence, autonomy and cohesion or kinship. (140)
For older people who are to be included in public digitization, this is also a goal in order to maintain or achieve the sense of self-determination and thus both the sense of autonomy and the sense of belonging with the rest of society. The older people’s motivation and sense of self-determination are therefore both a prerequisite for learning IT, while the development of their sense of self-determination and their motivation is also a goal of the didactic design in relation to their subsequent development and learning. The older people’s belief in whether they are able to learn how to use IT is also a crucial prerequisite for their possibility to learn and get something out of the process. Psychologist Albert Bandura uses the concept of self-efficacy about man’s belief in his own ability versus success in a given situation. A person’s sense of self-efficacy is crucial to how a person engages in tasks and challenges and how to achieve given goals. The more likely the elderly are to expect that IT is not something they can figure out, the greater the risk of them being right. If, on the other hand, they have the belief that IT is something they can master, their basis is far better. According to Bandura, people with high self-efficacy are those who think they can do well and tend to view difficult tasks as something to be mastered rather than something to be avoided.
One of the prerequisites for self-efficacy is modeling or “imitation”. The feeling that “if he or she can do it, so can I.” Seeing others succeed with a given task helps increase our self-efficacy, while the failure of others has the opposite effect. In this case, it is a prerequisite that the individual sees himself as identical to the “model”. This prerequisite does not have as strong an impact on self-efficacy as the direct experience one gets by solving a given task but is significant in relation to people who are uncertain about their own performance or ability. (141) Overall, there is a wide difference between the conditions that each individual has for becoming better at IT and for participating in public digitization. The fact that the participants are older is rarely crucial in itself. By making the teaching individual and based on the individual’s needs and interests, one can best meet the individual’s prerequisites and thus – hopefully – also create the best possible framework for learning.
There is a significant difference between Taylor’s perception of human self-understanding and Ryan & Deci`s and Albert Bandura’s respectively. Where Taylor’s self is philosophical and revolves around the human being in the world, about meaning, values, reasons and reasoning, the theory of motivation and self-efficacy are psychological concepts that act as causal relations and explain how different influences influence our self-understanding and how this affects our approach to specific tasks. I am aware of this difference, but find it obvious to use the concepts both in the planning of the didactic design and in the analysis in the context of Taylor’s hermeneutic concept of self-understanding, because the concepts can help to nuance the analysis of what affects older people’s bases, their self-understanding in relation to IT and their benefits and learning in the didactic process.
In relation to the older people’s bases, it is also important to keep in mind that these change during the didactic process. Older people are not necessarily either users or non-users of IT. (142) Their position in the IT maze can continuously evolve, and their prerequisites for moving from the new position will be different than they were when we started the process. It is crucial that, as a teacher or supervisor, one is able to gain knowledge and understanding of and to respect the learner’s prerequisites for participation. I start this didactic process with a longer interview with each participant. First and foremost, to seek an understanding of their self-understanding, but also in order to gain an understanding of their bases and prerequisites to the extent possible. The content of the sessions is organized based on the individual’s interests, opportunities, skills and other prerequisites.
4.3 Framework Factors
Framework factors are given conditions that inhibit or make learning possible. These may be laws and regulations about how certain groups should or are entitled to different forms of teaching, or how teaching should take place. It can also be the cultural or social environment in which learning takes place. The time available, the economy, and the equipment available are also framework factors. The significance of the framework factors varies greatly from course to course. Good framework factors are those that help improve the learner’s prerequisites for learning. (143)
The practical and physical framework for this didactic design is a teaching course of between four and six sessions spread over up to six weeks. The temporal framework is due both to the framework of this thesis and to the assumption that during this period it will be possible to achieve a change in the elderly’s ability to participate in digital practice going forward. Participants receive instruction in their own home and on their own computer or computer available in their home. The duration of the sessions is one hour for reasons of concentration. Because it takes place precisely in the participants’ own home and on the computer that is also available to them when I am not present between sessions and when the course is over, some of the transfer issues that may arise when students must use the knowledge they have gained in one context in another context that is significantly different from the first. This is problematic, for example, when the elderly have borrowed a computer for a course and only buy a new machine when the course is over and thus really have to start all over again with a new machine. Because the elderly here work with their own machine on their own and are first and foremost guided by me in their own home, the situation in which they use their computer at the end of the course will change as little as possible from the teaching situation.
Because the framework of a course of study – like the other points in the model – are mutually related to the other factors and are influenced by both the learners’ prerequisites, the goals, the content, the learning process and the content, they will never be absolute or complete, but, just as the prerequisites, change continuously. (144) Certain aspects, such as the number of sessions, the length of these and where the teaching takes place, are defined in advance, but no more firmly than these can also be changed. In the didactic design, the framework factors are that the sessions have a duration of one hour. If it turns out to be too little or too much – either in relation to the content, the learning process or the individual’s condition, it will be changed. This is a possibility in this process, because the framework is relatively free and is organized in an interaction between me and the learners. In other cases, the coherence between the given framework and the other factors of the model may be more difficult to achieve. There may, for example, be a discrepancy between the time available and the requirements set for the goals. An external framework has not, as such been set up for this process in the form of laws, regulations and targets for IT education for the elderly in general, but it is part of the overall framework in which it has been agreed that 80% of communication with the public must be digital during 2015. In connection with this objective, you must be able to meet at least one of the following five criteria in order to be exempt from digitization:
Cognitive and physical disability, where the disability prevents the citizen from receiving his or her post digitally. It can for example. be if you are demented or developmentally disabled.
Lack of access to computer in own home or residence. So, you can’t be forced to go to the library or citizen service to read your digital mail.
Departure from Denmark or termination of permanent residence in Denmark.
Linguistic barriers. It may be a citizen, who, for example, does not speak Danish, and therefore has difficulty accessing the digital mailbox due to difficulties in acquiring the texts in Digital Post.
Practical difficulties in obtaining a NemID. It may be a citizen who is temporarily staying abroad and has a long way to a Danish representation where NemID can be delivered. (145)
If you do not meet at least one of these criteria, then it is a necessity to be able to use IT to stay in contact with the public, and therefore this framework factor has an indirect impact on this IT course, as it influences the motivation of the elderly and hence basis for participating. The requirement can be instrumental in both inhibiting and promoting the participation of the elderly, depending on how it affects the individual. As mentioned, the available equipment is an important framework factor. The course is based on the elderly having their own computer, which I do not know how works in advance. Of course, some of them will have a Windows 8 computer, while others may have the so-called Duka PC, which is particularly senior-friendly. The equipment can be of varying age and quality and can have an inhibitory effect on the process.
4.4 The role and conditions of the teacher or helper
To a great extent, I also find the teacher’s or helper’s bases relevant in this context. The “helper” here seems to be a more true term than the term “teacher” because the function is largely to support and guide the elderly into the digital world. In Hiim and Hippe’s model, the teacher is placed as a framework factor, i.e. as something that helps to create the framework for the learning that takes place.
It is also very important and makes a difference for the learners whether the helper helps to make learning possible or whether the helper with his way of being, with his attitude towards the course and the content or with his attitude towards the learners contributes to promote or inhibit their development like the other frameworks. However, I would argue that in the context of the other learning prerequisites, it is also important to look at the teacher or helper as an independent factor and his or her basis as one of the prerequisites for, how the teaching proceeds and what the benefits will be. Hiim and Hippe themselves point out that it may be problematic to consider the teacher as a framework factor only and consider whether one should consider the helper’s basis as a separate didactic category but does not elaborate on this further. (146) In this course, it is me who has the teaching or helping role.
My basis is based both on my
- prior knowledge of the target group, my perception of older people,
- my IT skills,
- my teaching experience or lack thereof,
- my personal experiences with teaching based on my own schooling and other learning-related factors,
- my motivation, which comes from the fact that for many reasons I find the field interesting, that I have to fulfill the requirements for my thesis, in the view of my knowledge that is linked to social constructivism and philosophical hermeneutics and in general my social and cultural background.
It will never be unimportant who is teaching or helping. Different educators will have different understandings, experiences and bases that will influence how a course will unfold. Likewise, identification and chemistry between the learners and the teacher will be individual and varied.
In the report from the Danish Technological Institute, 77% of the elderly respondents say that they do not need to receive public assistance to use the Internet, but that they largely want to manage themselves or that they can get help from family and friends (147). The family is to a great extend the main source of help. (148 149) It is often through the family that the elderly acquire a computer or access one, but it is also here that continuous help is available because the helper is already part of the person’s network. It is essential that the helper is able to understand the elderly and to put oneself in their place when it comes to IT. And just that can be a challenge for close family members or for people who are significantly younger than the elderly. Therefore, the help of family members may also be characterized by a lack of understanding and patience. (150 151)
Initially, the plan was that the teacher in this course should not be me, but instead other older people in the same age group as those who were to receive teaching in the course. Some research results indicate that in this interaction there is a higher degree of human understanding, identification and acceptance – and this goes in both directions between teaching and user (152)
The older people thus have a greater sense of being met in their own position when they are in a teaching situation with a peer. Unfortunately, we were unable to recruit older people who had the time and desire to participate in this project. That it became me instead will have an impact on the outcome of the process and on the change that is happening or not happening with the participants along the way. The role and prerequisites of the facilitator or teacher cannot simply be seen as a framework factor and focus solely on the teacher’s direct influence on the situation that is present. Anchored in philosophical hermeneutics, it is also relevant to be aware of the teacher’s understanding and self-understanding in relation to the course in question. Therefore, it is relevant to consider the teaching or auxiliary role as an independent factor.
The goals are related to the purpose of the teaching and what the participants should gain. While it is not necessarily appropriate to make the goal description too precise, it may be advantageous to have a common understanding of where you are going. (153) In this process, there are several levels of objectives, and I will describe them separately in the following.
4.6 Personal Objectives of the participants
Significant for the elderly in this thesis is that they have no long-term experience with IT. Some of them typically feel compelled to use various digital solutions in relation to, for example, online banking and self-service solutions in the public sector. Thus, they regard IT as a necessity to be able to perform various tasks, even though they often do not feel any interest in doing so. Since they voluntarily choose to receive IT education and acquire various competences, despite their external motivation, they have an interest in participating. Their overall goal with a learning process is therefore likely to be to be able to perform various practical tasks in relation to IT and the public. At the specific level, it may be a goal to learn how to use NemID, online banking or maybe just get better at using the computer altogether. As I mentioned, I do not know my participants prior to the planning of the didactic design, and because the goals are largely dependent on both learning prerequisites and framework factors, the more concrete goals will only be present when I have started the collaboration with the participants.
4.7 Overall Objectives
The overall aim of the course is to enable the elderly to participate in public digitization. By using IT to varying degrees, they become familiar with the technology and thus become able to use various self-service solutions going forward. For this to be possible, it is a goal to increase the skills of the elderly in relation to the starting point and thus also a goal to increase or maintain their independence. This goal is visible to the participants, understood by the fact that they know my intention to make them more self-reliant based on their wishes and interests in relation to public digitization, but also by the fact that they are aware that there is not a requirement for them to obtain certain competences before our course is completed. In the situated learning perspective, one goal is to change the possibility for older people to participate in various forms of social practice. It may be that after the course, they will gain more from attending an IT course due to what has happened during the course. It may be that they are able to help others themselves, or it may be that they become a more integral part of communities they previously had difficulty in joining because they could not use a computer. The most important thing is that there is an evolution with them along the way and to see if it allows them to participate in new ways in different contexts than they did in the past, which brings me to the objectives of the study.
4.8 Objectives of the study in relation to the problem statement
In relation to this thesis, it is also a goal of the study to change the elderly’s – often negative – self-understanding in relation to IT. As mentioned earlier, many older people feel that IT is a necessary evil. They perceive IT as something their outside world expects them to master, while also having a desire to fend for themselves. IT is a necessity for this to continue. Thus, mastering IT is just as much something they expect from themselves. Their motivation is therefore to a great extent extrinsic and rarely grounded in actual desire or interest, which in my opinion has a bearing on the benefits of a course of study and the subsequent skills of the elderly. Can the course at all change the self-understanding, and is it possible by changing this self-understanding to improve their ability to use IT going forward? The goals of the course may prove to be more or less realistic and must therefore be adjusted along the way.
The content of the five sessions will consist of a mix of training, comprehension and exploratory tasks. It will be done so that the learners on the way try the functions on their own at their own computer, while I guide them from the sidelines. The content will partly be based on the interests and wishes of the elderly, but also on relevant public services. Depending on their basis and competences, the sessions will each deal with these four main functions in the order in question: Internet, e-mail, NemID and digital mail. It will be difficult to plan the five sessions in advance. There will probably be a difference between the starting point of the elderly, their wishes and their needs for what they need to know. The content of this design should therefore be considered indicative. The content will be organized in part during the learning process in an interaction between the participant and me. In elaborated form and with the possibility of changes along the way, the sessions will be as follows: Next to the description of each session, I will elaborate on the purpose in relation to the objectives of the study and in relation to the individual user.
Using the Internet, searching within individual areas of interest. E.g. food recipes, travel or anything else. By searching for things via a web browser, the elderly will enhance their use of mouse and keyboard. They also get to know the basic functions of a browser and are therefore reinforced in functions that are a prerequisite for using the Internet. They also discover the great potential that exists on the web. They are given the opportunity to search for things based on their own interests and desires, and this can hopefully help to arouse both curiosity and the desire to use the computer on their own between our sessions.
Creating and using email for contact with family members or friends. The use of e-mail in general terms is similar to the use of the digital mailbox with the public. Hopefully, the email can be used for more enjoyable purposes and to interact with family and friends. This, in turn, depends on the prerequisites of the participants, their prior IT skills, their family and social conditions in general. Do they have anyone to communicate with and does it make sense to them? It is my idea that I will continuously communicate with the participants along the way, and that they may also have the opportunity to communicate with each other.
Creation and/or use of NemID on borger.dk or netbank as required. NemID is the gateway to all digital solutions with the public. It is therefore essential that the elderly participants are given the opportunity to learn and to use this function, whether it is for one purpose or the other.
Creating and using digital mailbox.
As needed and desired. Along the way, it will be relevant to focus on the individual functions as means for the goals that the elderly have. It can be goals such as staying in touch with the family via email, goals to save fee money by paying Giro cheques on their netbank rather than going to the bank or saving time and transportation by using digital mail instead of turning up at the municipality or waiting a long time on the phone. On the whole, it is essential that IT becomes the means and not the goal itself.
4.10 The Learning Process
In order to take into account both the bases of the elderly, their motivation and their opportunities to learn new things, it is of great importance for the process itself that what is going on is based on the older people’s own experiences, so that in this way they can develop their opportunities, skills and attitudes towards IT. (154) There are many different ways of working and learning, and it is essential that the course is adapted to the individual participant’s way of learning. Therefore, it is not necessarily possible to plan how it should be done in concrete terms and to plan the course in advance. Some will need to work on specific tasks over and over, while other tasks may be irrelevant. Again, patience, understanding and calm are important factors for the elderly to be met with. Something might not go according to plan. Something is easier, something harder, while something first makes sense to the elderly partway through the process.
Experience-oriented teaching means that the elderly have the opportunity to draw on their own experiences. Thus, it does not make much sense for me, as a helper or teacher, to present a number of IT functions to the elderly, if they are not allowed to try them for themselves.
If the way of working consists of instruction and testing of tasks, it will help to give the elderly participant first-hand experience with different functions. Therefore, the course must in practical terms allow the elderly themselves to try while I guide them. As mentioned earlier, it can help strengthen their practical skills. Elderly people may find that when someone else is sitting in front of a computer, things are going so terribly fast. (155) They are not given the opportunity to follow and understand what is happening. (156) When one of the goals is for the elderly to be able to use their computer themselves and also to be able to learn even more in the future, it is essential that they get the experience that they themselves also are able to use it and that nothing dangerous happens if you press something wrong (157) and that they can actually succeed in using the computer.
The evaluation of the didactic design will primarily consist of my analysis of the course data. In the situational perspective, it will be relevant to examine didactic design as a transformation project and thus focus, in the analysis and evaluation, on how the older participants change and whether there is a change in their self-understanding (158) rather than focusing on whether they meet specific objectives and learn from them what they need to do. In other words, it will be to examine how and if they have changed from their starting point when the course is over based on an analysis of the qualitative interviews conducted before and after the course.
The didactic design test took place during March, April and May 2014.
· 116 Wenger (2004) s. 259
· 117 Hiim & Hippe (1997) s. 73
· 118 Digitaliseringsstyrelsen (2012) s. 8
· 119 Digitaliseringsstyrelsen (2012) s. 12
· 120 Digitaliseringsstyrelsen (2012) s. 1
· 121 Digitaliseringsstyrelsen (2012) s. 20
· 122 Hiim & Hippe (1997) s. 73
· 123 Hansen (2009)
· 124 Blat et al (2011) s. 10
· 125 Hiim & Hippe (1997) s. 78
· 126 Teknologisk Institut (2013) s. 71
· 127 Bean (2004) s. 111
· 128 Ryan & Deci(2000) s. 58
· 129 Ryan & Deci (2000) s. 58
· 130 Ryan (1982) s. 450–461.
· 131 Vallerand & Reid (1984) s. 94– 102
· 132 Ryan & Deci (2000) s. 59
· 133 Ryan & Deci (2000) s. 60
· 134 Connell & Wellborn (1990)
· 135 Miserandino (1996)
· 136 Vallerand & Bissonnette (1992)
· 137 Grolnick, Deci & Ryan (1997)
· 138 Sheldon & Kasser (1995)
· 139 Ryan & Deci (2000) s. 63
· 140 Ryan & Deci (2000) s. 64
· 141 Bandura (1997) s. 2
· 142 Selwyn, Neil (2004) s. 380
· 143 Hiim & Hippe (1997) s. 78
· 144 Hiim & Hippe (1997) s. 171
· 146 Hiim & Hippe (1997) s. 169
· 147 Teknologisk Institut (2013) s. 77
· 148 Selwyn (2004) s. 374
· 149 Teknologisk Institut (2013) s. 74 ff.
· 150 Digitaliseringsstyrelsen (2012) s. 50 ff.
· 151 Teknologisk Institut (2013) s. 75
· 152 Teknologisk Institut (2013) s. 83
· 153 Hiim & Hippe (1997) s. 79
In general, we believe there is a lot of good experiences and reflections to have in mind developing a pedagogical approach and methodology enhancing the competence of seniors when it comes to IT.
But particularly we think the Slow Learning project in their future work should pay attention to the described sessions.